Bananas: The " Green Gold" in the TNCs
Bananas are the 5th largest farming commodity on planet trade following cereals, glucose, coffee and cocoa. They are a major software program food crop for many millions of people in regions of Central, East and West Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. They will grow very easily, are low-cost sources of energy and vitamin supplements, and can be farmed all year round, as a result providing a source of energy during the " hunger gap" between plant harvests.
Six countries (India, Brazil, Ecuador, Philippines, Chinese suppliers and Indonesia) account for 55 per cent of total globe production. Of the 86 mil tonnes of bananas and plantains made annually, just 14 % are bought and sold on the community market. Both the biggest banana-producing countries, India and Brazil, are hardly involved in the intercontinental banana control at all. However for at least 15 Latin America and Carribbean producer countries, they are an important source of foreign trade income.
Plums are grown mostly simply by millions of modest farmers in Africa, Southern Asia and Latin America for household consumption and local market segments. Most of this kind of production is achieved with few or no external inputs. Once a producer grows for export market segments, however , extensive and growing levels of exterior inputs (chemicals, fertilisers) must effectively contend in all those markets.
The Banana Cycle
The world operate in plums is dominated by three companies: the biggest producer and distributor of bananas may be the US company, Chiquita (formerly United Fruit), reputed to have paid piece in Central America also to have had relates to a percussion in Guatemala. Chiquita may be the brand of United Brands which usually accounts for nearly one third of traded bananas from which this obtains some 60 percent of it is profits. (Chiquita's prepared food division, generally meats and packaged items, accounts for about 50 % of the sales nevertheless less than 10 per cent of profits). Close on it is heels is definitely the US organization Dole Foodstuff, owned simply by Castle & Cooke, a property and food group. Dole is the world's largest maker and distributor of fresh fruit and regularity and vegetables. Both these companies own large banana plantations in Central America, and effectively act as price-setters. The third largest transnational company is definitely Del Mazo Fresh Develop, owned simply by Grupo IAT, which as well owns Chile's third-largest fruits exporter.
Chiquita Brands, Little Food and Del Mazo Fresh Create together develop and control 65-70 per cent of world exports, which allows them to control the market and, to a significant extent, to put the rules from the game. They can be followed by the Ecuadorian organization, Noboa, which in turn represents one other 10 percent, and the Euro company Fyffes, which settings some 6-7 per cent. Fyffes is the UK and Ireland's main clown distributor. In Latin America, some nationwide growers' companies are present within the international marketplace, mainly Noboa, but as well Sunisa and Banacol in Colombia, and Corbana in Costa Rica.
Ecuador, Costa Rica and Colombia be the cause of around 64 per cent of world export products. Europe, the us, and The japanese together obtain around 70 per cent of all exported bananas. In 1996, world clown imports had been valued by over US$7 billion, the European Union being the largest importer with nearly thirty-two per cent of traded bananas. Each of the 350 million EU citizens eats an average of 12 kg each year.
The EUROPEAN produces almost 20 percent of its needs, and imports the rest from Latina America (the so-called " dollar" bananas), and in the African, Carribbean and Pacific cycles (ACP) band of countries - the latter accounting for 17 per cent of imports in 1997.
The transnationals are generally associated with Latin and Central America wherever they control 60 percent of production. They are vertically integrated, which means that they very own (or contract) plantations, individual sea transfer facilities and distribution sites in consuming countries. The opening up of Eastern The european countries and East Asia, the...